Units of the RADAR:
Every RADAR system contains these basic components:
- T/R switch
The RADAR transmitter contains a powerful radio frequency generator that radiates radio waves into space by the antenna. A High-frequency generator in the transmitter must generate low-noise and stable frequency at its output. RADAR system contains an amplification tube to generate high-frequency radio signals.
In the late 1930s invention of a magnetron tube was introduced in the RADAR transmitter to generate higher frequencies known as microwaves. But magnetron tube has some certain limitations like in low-average-power applications such as ship navigation RADAR and weather-forecasting RADAR.
For amplification of low-power radio signals, the Klystron tube is also being used in RADAR. This amplification tube is capable to handle many hundreds of kilowatts of average power. It has good efficiency and stability. The disadvantages of the Klystron tube are that it is usually large and it requires high voltages (i.e., about 90 kilovolts require to generate 1 megawatt of peak power).
Another modified version of the Klystron tube is known as Travelling Wave Tube (TWT). It has very wide bandwidths at low peak power, but when the peak power levels are increased to those needed for pulse radar, its bandwidth decreases.
In the modern technical era, solid-state components are being used to generate high power output. The main benefits of solid-state devices are that they need less maintenance, support high power output and wide bandwidth. An individual solid-state device generates relatively low power. High power can be achieved by combining the outputs of many individual solid-state devices.
From here we can say that every kind of RADAR transmitter has its merits and demerits.