Humanoid robots

What are Humanoid Robots?

In recent researches, several research groups have started to investigate “Humanoid Robots” from several aspects. A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The first humanoid robot was named Herbert Televox. It was invented by Roy Wensley in 1927. This model was not able to move like a human being. The P3 (11) by Honda Corporation is a self-contained type humanoid robot. It can fully autonomous walk on moderately irregular terrain. As of now many research groups have made several changes in the machinery and functionality of humanoid robot models. Some of them are very popular like Sophia”.

Sophia - A popular AI based humanoid robot

Sophia – A popular AI based humanoid robot

Inside engineering and working process:

A Humanoid Robot is a mixture of several technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Mechanical, Electronics engineering, and much more. You can say that a humanoid robot is a cocktail of different technical fields. What makes humanoid robots unique? That is emotions. Right! By using AI and ML most of the humanoid robots are having emotional behavior. Every human takes a certain posture in their communication. When mankind is happy or upset, cheerfully take a posture in which the activities and behavior showing through body language like moving hands and spreading arms, etc. That’s why; emotion and mental state are closely related to human posture, gestures, facial expression, and more.

Here we are going to focus on some main electronic units of a humanoid robot:

  1. Sensor
  2. Motor
  3. Control unit

Sensor:

A humanoid robot is a robot with a body structure and features similar to that of a human. Three main primitives for a humanoid robot are sensors, planning, and control. These robots are generally having two types of sensors. The first one is proprioceptive sensors to sense the position and the second one is exteroceptive sensors to get data on what is being touched or senses ambiance.

Proprioceptive sensors:

These sensors are responsible to measure values of the internal system (like any machinery or robot); i.e. battery voltage level, motor speed, wheel load, robot arm joint angles, etc. Some of the proprioceptive sensors are described below:

Voltage and Current measurement:

We can measure voltage by using many techniques. Voltage is one of the easiest items in a robot to measure. Its measurement can help let you know the battery voltage or charging level. In the simplest way, an analog to digital converter (ADC) can be used to measure it.

For current in the circuit, there are two ways of measurement:

  1. The first way by using Hall Effect sensors: This sensor consists thin piece of a rectangular p-type semiconductor material such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or indium antimonide (InSb) passing a continuo