Engineering Inside The Smart Window Glass:
Smart window glass (electrochromic glass, also known as dynamic glass) is an electronically tunable used for windows, skylight, facades, and curtain walls. Smart window glass can be directly controlled by building occupants, is very popular for its ability to improve occupant comfort, maximize access to daylight and outdoor views, reduce energy costs and provide the architect with more design freedom.
Let’s talk about the internal structure of smart glass. Ordinary windows are made from a single layer of glass and double glazed windows have two glass layers separated by an air gap to provide heat insulation and soundproofing. Commonly sophisticated window glass is coated with a thin layer of metallic chemicals so they keep your building warm in winter and cool in summer. Smart window glass works similar to this, only the metallic coating they use is deposited with a modernized and sophisticated process. On inside surface smart window glass (facing into the home), the window has a double-sandwich of five layers of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) (also known as an electrochromic coating), a separator in the middle of the glass, and two electrodes for electrical contacts on either side of the separator, and finally two transparent electrical contact layers on either side of the electrodes. The basic working of smart window glass depends on the movement of the lithium ions (Li+ positively charged atom) that moves back and forth between the electrodes through the separator. In normal conditions, when glass remains transparent, the lithium ions reside in the inner electrode. Whenever a small voltage is applied across the electrodes, the ions migrate through the separator to the outermost electrode. When lithium ions soak into the outer electrode, they form a layer that reflects the light, effectively turning the glass opaque. This layer exists until the applied voltage is reversed because reverse voltage causes the lithium ions to move back and glass turns transparent once again.